Tuesday, October 3, 2017
Chair: Sakari Kuikka (University of Helsinki)
15:00-15:15 Welcome and presentation of the Workshop
15:15-16:00 Plenary session: Markku Viitasalo (SYKE. Finnish Environment Institute)Biodiversity inventories support protection and sustainable use of the marine ecosystem – case studies Finland and Zanzibar
Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) is a knowledge based process to allocate human marine activities on sea. To support MSP, a lot of data on the distributions of key habitats and spatial distributions of species is needed. We present how data for MSP has been collected in two different environments: the Finnish coast, northern Baltic Sea and Zanzibar, western Indian Ocean.
In Finland the mosaic archipelagoes, variable benthic habitats and very long shoreline make it costly and technically challenging to collect data that is useful in MSP. In Zanzibar, scarce resources and meagre databases create a similar data deficiency.
The Finnish Inventory Programme for the Underwater Marine Environment (VELMU) gathered information on species, communities and habitats during 2004-2016 from over 120.000 observation points. The sampling plan was designed to cover the full range of key environmental gradients, such as salinity, temperature, turbidity and wind exposure. This supported using the data in species distribution modelling (SDM), which in turn could be used in MSP. The observations were made with video method or by diving, and thousands of benthos and fish larvae samples were collected. In addition, LIDAR, aerial imaging with drones and automatic video platforms were used or tested.
Zanzibar in the western Indian Ocean is surrounded by abundant coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangrove forests. The integrity of the key marine habitats is compromised by the increasing use of the coasts, waste waters entering the sea, construction of seaside resorts and destructive fishing practices.
In Zanzibar, virtually no resources exist for performing large-scale field inventories. Therefore we used satellite images to detect seabed habitats and only validated the satellite analyses of habitats in the field. Also, we compiled all existing spatial data, carried out interviews with stakeholders and conducted participatory mapping with local communities. Especially direct communication with local researchers, diving centers and people living in coastal villages provided a lot of novel information on valuable habitats and human activities in the sea area.
We present the different approaches and highlights of the inventories, and explain how the collected data has been used in creating a societally acceptable marine spatial plan in both study areas.
16:00-16:20 Free slot
16:30-17:00 Joint tea/ coffee break
17:00-17:45 Plenary session: Cinta Porte (IDAEA-CSIC)Use of in-vitro bioassays to characterize the environmental quality of benthic ecosystems
The health of marine ecosystems can be measured by the quality of the sediments, as they are the main cycling compartment of aquatic pollutants. Sediments may contain complex mixtures of organic compounds that could create stressful conditions for aquatic life, representing a risk to ecosystems and human health. Thus, methodologies that assess sediment quality are essential to characterize the health status of aquatic environments and, ultimately minimize the threats and prevent the adverse effects to aquatic wildlife. As the interaction of chemicals with biota initially takes place at the molecular and cellular level, responses at these levels are considered the first manifestation of toxicity and they are used as suitable tools for the early and sensitive detection of chemical exposure. Due to the key role of the liver in the metabolism of xenobiotics, bioassays based on the use of fish liver cell lines and transfected cell lines have been developed together with fish ovarian microsomal fractions (endocrine alteration) to detect the cumulative impact of sediment-bound pollutants. These bioassays allowed the detection of cytotoxic compounds, CYP1A inductors, endocrine disruptors (CYP19 inhibitors) and Pxr activators in sediment extracts collected from different ecosystems. Generally, sediments collected in the vicinity of harbors showed the highest responses in the different bioassays, followed by those collected in the mouth of rivers (i.e. Danube, Po). The use of these bioassays allows a significant reduction of the costs and the number of bioindicator organisms to be used in environmental monitoring studies.
17:45-18:05 Giuliano Petroni (Blu Marine Service). Blue Packaging Project - Pioneering initiative to reduce packaging waste at source through the use of a promising bio-based material as a sustainable alternative to EPS (Expanded Polystyrene) boxes in the fisheries
The Blue Packaging Project is a pioneering initiative proposed by the Blu Marine Service (Italy) and supported by the BeMed platform (Beyond Plastic Med), leaded by the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation, representing the first example of Zero Waste applied to the fisheries sector in Europe. This pilot project is currently in progress in Italy and Spain and envisages a series of concrete actions in order to facilitate the opportunity to use a new bio-based packaging, biodegradable and compostable, to replace EPS (Expanded Polystyrene) fish boxes mainly used nowadays during all the stages of production and distribution of seafood products. Packaging waste represents the major component of all ocean litter coming from landbased sources. EPS is not degradable naturally and subject to fragmentation in small grains, becoming very polluting to the marine environment. Since EPS fish boxes can only be used once, they are in great demands and generate large amounts of packaging waste difficult to deal with, at least in the fishing industry. Previous worldwide market research carried out by the Blu Marine Service (Italy) found the BioFoam 100% bio-based PLA (polylactic acid) as a promising alternative to replace EPS, due to similar technical features. The innovative material has been certified for industrial composting according to the European standard EN 13432 and is already available on the market. BioFoam boxes have been tested during last months by local stakeholders (fishermen, wholesalers) in Barcelona in their everyday activities, and the material has been transported to the composting plant under the supervision of the Ag`encia de Residus de Catalunya (ARC). Tests were performed to both collect feedbacks from stakeholders and optimize BioFoam waste treatment in view of its wider use. Results are expected to be available and discussed next november. The present initiative aims to define a roadmap to reduce plastic waste at source by exploiting technological advances in the field of bio-based materials that can generate minor costs for the waste management and positive impact on the marine environment.
Wednesday, October 4, 2017
Chair: Markku Viitasalo (SYKE. Finnish Environment Institute)
09:20-09:40 David Brito (Action Modulers, Consulting & Technology, Lda.). Towards an Integrated Service for Water Quality Monitoring in Mamaia Beach, Romania
Mamaia is the largest touristic seaside resort of Romania. Mamaia beach is one of the most famous beaches of the Romanian Black Sea. The potential impacts on environmental receptors within the transitional area of the Romania littoral, represented by Mamaia Bay, require certain mitigation measures, related to local and regional water quality changes due to different direct physical, chemical and biological disturbances. The work here presented is focussed on the implementation of a decision support system to enhance the management, monitoring and forecasting of the bathing water quality in Mamaia bay, integrating numerical models (downscaled from CMEMS global solution) with in-situ measured data and CMEMS remote sensing products, and based on ACTION Beach software solution. This operational service is designed to help national and local (municipalities) authorities directly or indirectly managing bathing water resources or recreational activities on the swimming waters. The service also targets the large community of bathing water users in the area of demonstration. The system is composed by:

  • A mobile-friendly (responsive) web site working as the main user interface for the generated service, providing:
  • Visualization of maps and time series charts for several parameters: precipitation, wind speed, air temperature, currents, sea surface temperature, wave properties and microbiological parameters
  • Integration of continuously measured data (in-situ fixed data from water monitoring stations and webcams + remote sensing information operationally distributed by CMEMS) with high resolution operational model forecasts (comparisons using automatic and on-the-fly user-defined data comparisons)

The operational implementation of the referred service:

  • Increases situational awareness in terms of bathing water present and short-term future state;
  • Enhances safety, environmental and public health performance in beaches and recreational waters;
  • Provides valuable, accurate water quality and marine weather information, needed to promote safer recreational activities in bathing waters.

The system is easily adaptable and transferable to any other coastal areas, having in mind that the numerical models used are free and open source software, and successfully applied in different regions all over the world; and b) the web-based technology applied is totally supported by commonly adopted standards (e.g. OGC WMS; REST API).

09:40-10:00 Annukka Lehikoinen (University of Helsinki, Research group of Fisheries and Environmental Management)To eat or not to eat? Two systems analytic approaches to evaluate the sustainable use of the dioxin-rich Baltic herring and salmon
Ecosystem-based fisheries management aims to achieve sustainable use of the fish stocks in a socioecologically balanced manner, paying attention to human-environment interconnections. This requires systemic perspective to management: the interactions between species, environmental conditions and human pressures determine the productivity and health of the ecosystem. These further on define the limits of the sustainable use, where both environmental, social, and economic aspects are considered. We examine dioxin flux in different basins of the Baltic Sea and analyze alternative ways to reduce the dioxins accumulating to humans via eating Baltic herring and salmon. Dioxin compounds accumulate to fatty tissues, thus the concentrations in the organisms increase cumulatively when shifting upwards along the food chain. On the other hand, fatty fish as part of human diet form an excellent source of healthy Omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin-D. We study the impact of different fishing regulations and fish eating recommendations to find ecologically and socially sustainable ways to use Baltic herring and salmon, acknowledging the risks and utilities to different sectors. Two systems analytic approaches are presented: 1) a qualitative study to conceptualize the causalities of key biotic and abiotic factors in different basins, including mapping of the prevailing levels of uncertainties and 2) a probabilistic influence diagram for the Bothnian Sea area, based on modular model coupling, where the output of an ecosystem model serves as an input to a human health risk–benefit model. The management options are evaluated from the multi-criteria perspective, acknowledging all the three aspects of sustainability.
10:00-10:20 Montserrat Solé (ICM-CSIC)The use of biochemical biomarkers to assess marine pollution
Marine pollution is a worldwide chronic problem that can be exacerbated in coastal areas and due to occasional accidents or spills. There are International monitoring programs devoted to assess this problem by using some particular species: sentinels; and by measuring parameters that are quantitatively and specifically related to the type of exposure: biomarkers. The relevance of using biochemical biomarkers is that they respond quickly to the insult and they can be extrapolated in the biological hierarchy as ecologically relevant. So far, chronic chemical pollution has been traced in terms of presence of inorganic toxic metals, persistent organic pollutants and acute spills (mostly due to petrogenic releases during transport or extraction activities). At present, the inclusion of other chemical classes termed emerging contaminants is gaining interest. Among them, it stands out pharmaceutical and personal care products, nanomaterials and microplastics. Not so much for their high abundance but for the interaction that these chemicals can chronically cause within biological processes and ultimately compromise species wealth and reproduction.
10:20-10:40 Adriana Sardi (University of Tromsø)Using antioxidant biomarkers for biomonitoring diesel contamination impacts in subtropical habitats: lessons learned
This work focused on developing biology-based tools for environmental monitoring and risk assessment associated with diesel oil contamination in tropical coastal habitats. As oil production in tropical and subtropical areas has increased, so has the risk of oil pollution. Polycyclic–aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the main components of petroleum, are toxic compounds classified as narcotic. PAHs are expected to penetrate cell membranes, alter the lipid bilayer, and disturb the normal function of cells. On average, nearly 85% of the total petrogenic PAHs input to the marine environment origins from petroleum consumption or diffuse sources. Specifically, chronic diesel oil contamination that leaks from marine vessels poses a real risk to the species inhabiting the Paranagu´a Estuarine System (PES) in southern Brazil, and ecologically relevant system, and economic center that host the third largest harbor of Brazil. The general objectives of this work were to validate the use of antioxidant biomarkers as tools for biomonitoring coastal estuarine habitats, as also to compare risk assessment metrics from species distributed from subtropical, temperate and Arctic regions exposed to a toxic PAH. The work included a seasonal baseline of biomarker values, and experimental manipulations both in the laboratory and the field. The baseline consisted of the biomarker activity from 5 different subtropical species at two seasons and at two different locations that have varying levels of organic and PAH contamination. Correlations between the antioxidant response and diesel oil exposure were tested with experimental manipulations. The first experiment characterized the biomarker response under laboratory conditions. The second experiment studied the biomarker response in a common clam species after chronic exposure to diesel oil in situ. Significant changes in the GST and SOD enzymatic activities following exposure suggested a causal relationship between these biomarkers and diesel oil contamination. Thus, these biomarkers are recommended as tools in biomonitoring programs at PES. Within this work, a framework for selecting biomarkers and testing their causal relationship to contamination, and specific recommendations for designing experiments for biomonitoring purposes were also provided. Briefly, welldesigned experimental manipulations have a clear hypothesis to test, the statistical power of the design is considered before starting sampling, and the design includes spatial and temporal variability. Regarding differences in risk assessment metrics following the exposure to 2–Methylnaphthalene, our results indicate that No–Effect Concentration (NEC) values –concentration thresholds for species sensitivity to toxic exposure– were not significantly different among the studied species and differences among regions were not identified. However, when defining sensitivity as the time to observe an effect –a metric that includes the NEC and the elimination rate– differences in sensitivity among regions were detected. In summary, species from Arctic to subtropical regions have similar NEC thresholds, but the time they need to reach that threshold varies, and this variation is related to taxonomy and trophic level. Arctic species had on average shorter times for starting to show an effect, followed by subtropical and finally temperate species. Our results suggest that assuming that species sensitivities from Arctic and temperate regions are sufficiently similar to those from subtropical regions might be incorrect. Results indicate that in in the search for metrics for safeguarding the marine ecosystem, attention should not be given only to concentration thresholds. Concentration thresholds might be providing assessors an inaccurate metric for species sensitivity, which is ultimately underestimating the risk to marine and estuarine ecosystems.
10:40-11:15 Joint tea/coffee break
11:15-12:00 Plenary session: Sakari Kuikka (University of Helsinki). Modelling oil spill impacts in the Gulf of Finland
The probability of major oil accidents in Baltic Sea has increased due to the Russian export of oil through the Baltic Sea. Especially Gulf of Finland is a risky area with vulnerable ecosystem and high number of threatened species along the coastal line. Hence, there is a growing need to understand the risks posed by oil spills to these unique and sensitive areas. There is an obvious need to develop analysis tools that offer a systematic way to quantitatively assess the consequences of possible oil spills so that the oil induced risks can be taken into account when new sea activities are planned. The challenge of the oil spill risk analysis in Baltic Sea area is, that existing data sets are, luckily, few. Hence, methods are needed to combine knowledge from complementary sources of information. This can be achieved with Bayesian inference which allows combining information from, e.g., existing reports and models, data sets from field and laboratory, and knowledge from experts. Bayesian inference can also be applied sequentially to build a learning chain where the knowledge from previous accidents and studies can be used as a prior information for new risk assessments. Moreover, Bayesian analysis allows rigorous treatment of uncertainties related to the assessment providing a comprehensive quantitative risk assessment framework. In this talk, we will summarize the lessons learned from over 15 years of Bayesian oil risk assessment in the Baltic Sea.
12:00-12:45 Plerary session: Miguel Santos (CIMAR/CIIMAR – Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto). Environmental Impact Assessment of HNS spills: Combining HNS Databases and Dispersion models
A comprehensive understanding of the risks associated to HNS spills is not a simple issue, considering the lack of reliable information available. Moreover, an understanding of the potential environmental hazards and risks involved in HNS spills is less well recognized and understood than those dealing with oil pollution. The selection of the appropriate response to an HNS incident requires detailed knowledge on the physicochemical and toxicological properties of the substance involved. This information has been identified as a key instrument to improve the preparedness and response to accidental marine spills. Here, we present a new framework combining online dynamic chemical databases with a dispersion modelling system. This framework aims to improve the predictions related to the HNS plumes behaviour and potential hazards to the marine environment and associated resources such as fisheries and recreational activities. This approach will allow a more effective preparedness and response to coastal pollution incidents in the different stages of the crisis (before, during and after spill incidents).
Acknowledgements This study is financed through MARINER that is cofinanced by the European Union in the framework of the Union Civil Protection Mechanism – DG-ECHO.
12:45-13:05 Miguel Moll Kraft (EMS, S.L.U./ Liquid Robotics). Liquid Robotics WAVE GLIDER : Solutions for Maritime Pollution and Safety
The WAVE GLIDER revolutionizes how we explore and understand the world’s oceans by gathering data in ways or locations previously too costly or challenging to operate. Powered by wave and solar energy, the WAVE GLIDER is an autonomous, unmanned surface vehicle (SUV) that operates individually or in fleets delivering real-time data for up to a year with no fuel. We will be explaining how the WAVE GLIDER can be effectively used and implemented for assisting and solving problems related to marine pollution impacts, sources of risk, emerging pollutants, restoration and remediation measures and improvement of marine safety operations. An overview will be given on the operational aspects applied to specific examples, as well as a short discussion on the state of the art of the available sensor technologies today, that can be used on board the WAVE GLIDER and in combination with other platforms, like buoys, coastal and underwater observatories, ships, planes, aerial drones, satellites, etc. An outline of some ideas will be given , on how to combine scientific-grade data requirements by the scientific community with the need of an operational system to monitor, detect and alert about impact events, that require inmediate response by dedicated governmental agencies. EMS is authorized integrator and channel partner of Liquid Robotics.
13:00-15:00 Social All Together Lunch (included with the inscription fee)
15:00-18:00 Cultural visit (included with the inscription fee): Guided tour to the old town archaeological site
El Born Cultural and Memorial Centre is one of Barcelona’s leading cultural venues. The archaeological site, which is notable for its superb state of conservation and the information it provides about the lively and vibrant society of the 18th century, juxtaposes with the 19th-century market’s spectacular cast-iron and glass structure. This exceptional combination has turned it into a 21st-century venue that is unique in Europe.
Thursday, October 5, 2017
Chair: Joaquím Ballabrera (ICM-CSIC)
09:00-09:45 Plenary session: Ana Maria Mancho (ICMAT-CSIC)Dynamical systems and transport processes in the ocean: an application to an oil spill event.
The goal of this presentation is to provide evidence on how tools from dynamical systems theory may help to understand transport processes in the ocean surface. The role of these techniques will be illustrated through the description of a recent marine oil-spill, produced after the sinking of the Oleg Naydenov fishing ship, in Spain, close to the Canary Islands, in April 2015.
09:45-10:10 Jordi Isern Fontanet (ICM-CSIC). Reconstruction of ocean currents from existing satellite observations: the challenge of high resolution dynamics
Infrared and visible satellite observations have revealed that the ocean surface is crowded with eddies with scales O(10 -100 km) and submesoscale structures, like fronts and filaments, with scales O(1-10 km). Satellite infrared measurements of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) have resolutions high enough to observe submesoscales (~1 km), and the existence of multiple platforms with infrared sensors can provide observations of the same area with temporal samplings of less than 6 h. The key problem to be addressed is the extraction of quantitative dynamical information at the scales of interest from existing observations. Indeed, along-track altimetric measurements of Sea Surface Heights (SSH) are very well suited to quantify across-track currents. However, the spatial resolution of derived 2D velocities is restricted to scales above 100-150 km and the limited number of altimeters can lead to errors in the location of currents. To overcome the previous constrains, new theoretical frameworks that model the dynamics of the upper ocean have been proposed. Here, we discuss the strengths and weakness of dynamical approaches like the Surface Quasi-Geostrophic (SQG) equations to retrieve the three-dimensional dynamics of the ocean as well as other approaches that exploit the synergy between SST and SSH measurements to provide enhanced 2D surface currents. Recent results showing the current capabilities to retrieve the velocity field at scales of the order of 10 km will be also shown.
10:10-10:30 Patricia Pérez Pérez (Centro Tecnológico del Mar – Fundación CETMAR). MARINER Project. Enhancing HNS preparedness through training and exercising
Hazardous and Noxious Substances (HNS) are chemicals which, if introduced into the marine environment pose hazards to health, ecosystems and legitimate uses of the sea. Recent figures suggest approximately 2,000 HNS regularly transported by sea in excess of 200 Million tonnes annually. Data identify over 100 incidents reported globally between 1998 and 2013, with a cumulative volume released of 1,560,000 m3 (IMO, 2016).
Launched in January 2016, MARINER is a 2-year project funded by the DG-ECHO that aims at improving planning, preparedness and response to HNS spills in Europe. MARINER has four main components. The two first tasks focus on the capture, compilation and transfer of existing knowledge and response protocols. The third task aims to improve the interoperability and the operational use of models for forecasting HNS fate, transport and impact. Lastly, the fourth task focusses on training using innovative tools and approaches. Along the presentation the main outputs of MARINER will be showcased, which are, among others:

  • An online user-friendly knowledge tool gathering relevant information on HNS preparedness and response.
  • The MARINER Platform, which is a HNS spill model integrated into a Common Operating Picture.
  • A web-based database exercise tool, as well as E-learning materials on exercises and risk assessment to assist users on the functioning of the tool.
  • Training package on HNS spill management.

MARINER counts on the participation of 7 partners coming from UK, France, Spain and Portugal and the support from organisations with competencies on maritime pollution response in these countries. Project website:

10:30-11:00 Joint tea/coffee break
11:00-11:45 Plenary session: Néstor Perales (SASEMAR) and Jose Infante (Escribano Mechanical & Engineering). PICASSO Project. Project 3.1. Detecting men overboard or hazards to navigation of small dimensions. Room for improvement
The scope of this project is to develop a system capable to detect people in water or hazards to navigation of small dimensions – beyond the human eye capacity.
The system proposed will consist of a high resolution sensor attached to a vehicle (for example a drone or helicopter) with the enough intelligence to detect a human head in water which sends potential target to the Maritime Coordination Center in real time. This will allow increase the searching performances of an aerial or maritime unit.
The innovative character of this system consists of its capability to detect men overboard and small hazards, and show the whole sea surface traced over a digital map in a precise and fast way. Potentially, it would even be able to show the spill map in the case of a maritime pollution disaster.
Prototype technological solutions for on-board passenger ships rapid detection of the “man overboard” situations and for immediate tracking and tracing of man overboard in view of efficient rescue will be developed and tested.
11:45-12:30 Juan Peña Ibañez and Pablo Benjumeda Herreros (Babcock MCS Spain-SASEMAR). Sasemar 101: 10 years of Maritime Surveillance. History, trends and future challenges
Analysis of the operation of the ”SASEMAR 101” aircraseft during the last ten years. How has the results developed and what are the challenges we are facing in the next future regarding the surveillance in both (Search and Rescue and Antipollution).
12:30-12:50 Ignasi Vallès Casanova (ICM-CSIC)Lagrangian stream-functions and transit times
The Lagrangian approach is the natural way to describe ocean circulation pathways and connectivities at different scales. Nowadays, a variety of open-source Lagrangian modules are used by the oceanographic community to analyze ocean velocity data, either from observations or model outputs, in order to identify the predominant water pathways and mean transit times. This methodology can help understand how biotic and abiotic properties as well as pollutants, such as micro-plastics, are distributed in the ocean, and may also be used to assess the probability function of finding a drifting object at a certain location after a given time interval. Here we illustrate the methodology using the Connectivity Modelling System (Paris et al., Environt Model Soft, 42- 47-54, 2014) applied to two velocity fields, with different spatial and temporal resolutions. The first one is the two dimensional GLORYS2v4 reanalysis velocity field, with gridded velocity data at 1/4º of resolution and daily outputs between 1995 and 2015. The second one is a monthly Argo-inferred surface velocity field with 1º resolution (Rosell-Fieschi et al., Progr Oceanogr, 130, 1-18). We will present several examples with the surface velocity fields for the tropical Atlantic and South Atlantic Oceans and discuss the potential of the method, where its diverse applications are limited by the temporal and spatial resolution of the velocity fields.
12:50-15:00 Lunch break
Chair: Jordi Isern Fontanet (ICM-CSIC)
15:00-15:45 Plenary session: Ian D MacLeod (Western Australian Maritime Museum). Modelling decay of WWII iron shipwrecks and prediction of collapse during severe storms
Data collected between 2002-2015 during eight assessments of underwater cultural heritage of the WWII Japanese Imperial Navy and the merchant wrecks in Chuuk Lagoon, has been used to refine the corrosion models for the waters in the tropical paradise. The corrosion rate of iron wrecks is logarithmically dependent on the average water depth. The impact of the 2,130 square-kilometre lagoon in calming ocean waters is gauged by the observed rate of decay of open ocean wrecks being 18% higher than in the lagoon. The differences are due to increased wave action in open waters resulting in increased flux of dissolved oxygen to the concreted corroding metal. Data collected in 2002 estimated that several of the iconic wrecks would undergo significant collapse of their bridge superstructure and deck areas within 10-15 years. These predictions have been confirmed. The eye of typhoon Maysak hit Chuuk Lagoon as a category 5 super typhoon on March 31st, 2015. In-situ corrosion assessments in December 2015 confirmed that several wrecks suffered a 25% increase in corrosion rates. Since wrecks in shallow water corrode the fastest priority should be given to direct intervention on these vessels to stop corrosion of the fuel bunkers which are known to hold significant volumes of hydrocarbons. Corrosion mitigation strategies using sacrificial anodes will buy time until oil recovery operations can be set up in a coordinated and cost-effective fashion. The corrosion model from Chuuk Lagoon can be applied to all iron shipwrecks in waters up to 75 metres, which is the current limit of verification of data.
15:45-16:05 César de los Reyes Hernández Belenguer (SASEMAR). Fuel extraction from damaged ships
Training in bunker oíl recovery is a hard drive science, since much of it depends largely on the experience, which in turn, is quite difficult, so difficult, and despite the redundancy, which is found involved in one way or another on a device like this. So, I hope that this humble work, serve a greater or lesser extent for training rescue people who are interested in this topic.
The aim of this documet is to provide a technical vision of this discipline, although it is not treated as a specialization of marine salvage, that’s essential knowledge of its terms and techniques, in all the rescue operations of the vessels. You have to think that the greatest risk that a vessel can produce, then of course the loss of life at sea, is the effect of cargo pollution or fuel inside tanks onboard. So the bunker oil recovery, have become a time now, indispensable tasks when returning a damaged ship into the sea or in the worst case the scrapping.
16:05-16:30 Joint tea/coffee break
16:30-16:50 Álvaro de Pascual Collar (Puertos del Estado). Operational oceanography (OO) in support of marine pollution and SAR operations: Present status and short-term future prospective of the CMEMS & PdE products and services in Spanish waters
Puertos del Estado (PdE), the Spanish National Harbor authority, provides customized information for harbor decision making in harbor safety, environmental management and infrastructure operations. Amongst their legal competences, PdE is an operational oceanographic center focused on the delivery of real-time met-ocean observations (from different measurement networks: i.e. tide-gauge, coastal and deep-water moorings and HF Radars) and the production of very high resolution met-ocean forecast services (including wave, sea level and ocean circulation).
PdE develops its operational oceanographic activity at national and European level. In the framework of CMEMS (Copernicus Marine Environmental Monitoring Service), PdE is leading IBI-MFC (Iberian-Biscay-Ireland Monitoring and Forecasting Centre), who provides regional ocean predictions for the Atlantic façade.
The PdE OO products have a widespread use, going beyond the harbor community. Among others, SASEMAR, the Spanish Search & Rescue Office, is one of the key end-users. SASEMAR and PdE have a close collaborative relationship, started with the ESEOO Project (2003-2006), and continued through different initiatives (as the ones promoted by Centro Jovellanos or the jointly participation in exercises) and projects (COSMO, the most recent one). SASEMAR uses, in support of its operations against marine pollution and SAR, information from the PdE observational networks, particularly from the HF-Radar one. To build its oil spill or floating object predictions, SASEMAR integrates winds and wave forecast products, together with predictions of water currents from different data sources.
The present contribution is mainly focused on reviewing the available water current forecast products in Spanish waters (some of them already operationally downloaded by SASEMAR to be used as forcing by its predictive models), highlighting their latest progresses. Special attention is paid to the CMEMS IBI service evolution (with its major upgrade: the release in April 2018 of regional analysis, resulting from the application of satellite and in-situ data assimilation in the IBI model system) and to the boost of the PdE local forecast capabilities through the development of new very high-resolution SAMOA coastal forecast services (following the working line opened by pioneering SAMPA system in the Gibraltar Strait area). Also, some highlights on new local oil spill forecast capabilities for port uses is provided.
16:50-17:10 Pablo Cerralbo (Maritime Engineering Laboratory (LIM-UPC))Operational HR oil spill modelling for short-term harbour management
The capacity of port authorities to respond swiftly to oil spills is fundamental to limit their impact within the harbour’s influence zone. Operational systems (OS) constitute a convenient tool to bolster this shortterm response capability and to improve the general port turn-out. During the last years, and with the support of Puertos del Estado, LIM/UPC has developed and implemented such an instrument for several of the most relevant Spanish ports, in order to facilitate the preservation of harbour water quality (SAMOA project). The system presented is based on an evolution of the Medslik II (1.01) code, adapted to the small-scale and complex harbour domains and prepared to work with the latest CMEMS products. Some of the enhancements include a fully-3D simulation ability to account for underwater sources, identification of spill origin by backtracking, and an efficient handling of rotated grids, amongst others. The spill transport and weathering is driven by 3D hourly currents and water temperatures provided by the Puertos del Estado for harbour circulation, and by hourly atmospheric parameters obtained from AEMET’s high-resolution products (Spanish Meteorological Agency). The system is in its final stage of validation, but preliminary results suggest a promising behaviour and reveal is usefulness for port management.
17:10-17:30 David Brito (Action Modulers, Consulting & Technology, Lda.). An holistic platform to improve safety, environmental and operational port performances: application in the Port of Lisbon
Seaports are vital gateways – 74% of goods entering or leaving Europe go by sea. In their activities, they face important operational and tactical decisions. They manage piloting and navigation support, as well as the closing of port operations based on adverse marine weather. They should also be able to assess environmental aspects that result from regular port activity. Finally, they must respond to local marine pollution incidents or search and rescue (SAR) operations. Port industry also faces other strategic challenges. Increasing ship sizes and maritime traffic pose additional pressure on port operational performance. Low performing port services may result in congestion and extra costs for shippers, transport operators and consumers, and reduction of port efficiency and competitiveness. Moreover, the increased concerns in safety and environmental performance of ports (in particular with the atmospheric emissions of ships – as a result of international laws), generates conditions for the emergence of innovative solutions taking advantage of the integration of multiple sensors, numerical models and data analytics, and thus providing useful information to port management in the different aspects mentioned. Following this approach, ACTION Seaport is an innovative, cost-effective, accurate, holistic and scalable platform to improve port efficiency, competitiveness, and safety, particularly in environmental, navigational, and operational / logistical aspects. The information provided in the front-end is based on the combination of high resolution numerical forecasts, multi-source sensed data (e.g. buoys, AIS, satellite images), and data analytics, conveniently supported by a cloud-based back-end architecture. This decision support system uses a mobile-friendly platform capable of serving Port Authorities and Managers – as well as coastguards and maritime authorities – to improve safety, environmental and operational port performances. The developed solution is being applied initially in the Port of Lisbon, providing or promoting:

    • Improved maritime situational awareness: geospatial data fusion from (in-house or external) high resolution metocean models, drift forecasts, AIS data, webcams, satellite images, weather stations or buoys.
    • Early-warning from adverse metocean conditions and daily reports from data analytics.
    • Efficient piloting and navigation support in maps and critical points.
    • Smart environmental monitoring with integration of real-time measured and estimated water and air parameters – including airborne emissions from vessels.
    • Tactical support to marine pollution and SAR: on-demand state-ofthe- art drift model for oil, chemical (HNS), inert spills and floating objects.
    • Assessment of port performance throughput and time services by the dynamic estimation of AIS-based operational port performance indicators.
    • An overall Port green growth integrating state-of-the-art technological solutions.
17:30-17:50 Carolina Rodríguez (Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena)Autonomous underwater vehicles against marine pollution
The quick development of autonomous underwater vehicles during the last years has allowed to search new ways to use them, further more than military or scientific purpose. One of these new fields is the environmental monitoring, allowing to register different kind of pollution autonomously in the water column. An examples of it are the projects run nowadays by the Ecosystem Research Group of the Technical University of Cartagena, monitoring different kind of marine pollution: underwater litter (ROMULO), oil spills (eURready4OS) and noise (UNAM).
The project ROMULO goal (RObots and Models for Underwater Litter Observation) is to develop a methodology to map and classified the underwater litter by video recording, allowing to create a database with the coordinates and depth of the litter detected.
The general aim of the project e-UReady4OS ( Autonomous Underwater Vehicle ready for Oil Spill, is to join forces to make available to European Civil Protection a fleet of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) with operational capability to intervene against oil spills in European Seas using new cooperative multivehicle robotic technologies.
Lastly the project UNAM (Underwater Noise Autonomous Mapping) allows to map the underwater noise amplitude thanks to the hydrophone integrated aboard an AUV.
These projects shows the capabilities of this kind of vehicles to help against marine pollution.
17:50-18:10 Miguel Ángel Sacristán (GRAFINTA S.A.)S2S SAFE TO SEA
S2S SAFE TO SEA is an alarm and location aid system 100% reliable and manufactured in Spain, focusing in the safety of navigation in front of MOB (man over board) situations.
The system consists of:

  • Sentinel station (on board) that incorporates GPS systems, AIS class B and VHF / DSC Class D communication.
  • Personal unit (crew) in lifejacket with man-to-water detection system, GPS system, PLB / AIS personal beacon, automatic inflation system, strobe light and battery.

The operation of the system is very simple and completely safe.
When a member of the crew is in a man-in-the-water situation, the personal unit in the life jacket (crew) detects this situation and automatically activates the inflation section  of the vest, the personal location beacon and the alert signal at the Sentinel Station on board. The Sentinel station is normally installed on the bridge of the vessel.
The man-over-board is automatically detected and both visual and acoustic alarms are generated. In this situation, any member of crew can cancel the alarm and carry out the rescue using as a guide the GPS system of the station, which shows on a color display the GPS position of the personal rescue unit. If no crew member aboard is aware of the man’s position in the water, the sentinel station transmits the alert and current position, or last known position, of the crew member in the water. The transmission of the alert messages is carried out by the automatic system of calls DSC.
Regarding the personal units, there are various dress options: Jacket, full dress, and belt and bracelet configuration. In addition, it is possible to adapt the S2S design to specific dress requirements, like military jackets or other configurations.
The  convenience of using the S2S system is evident in fishing, commercial, recreational and even military vessels as used in oil, scientific or other platforms, In these cases, it is obvious that there is a potential risk of a crew member falling into the water during any maneuver in the boat.

Friday, October 6, 2017
Chair: Elisa Berdalet (ICM-CSIC)
09:00-09:45 Plenary session: Javier Sáez (SASEMAR). Fuel removal from shipwrecks
Spanish Marine Safety Agency SASEMAR is the organization in charge to fight against pollution in Spanish waters. Mostly of counter pollution operations take place on sea surface, however sometimes the oil must be removed from shipwrecks on the sea bottom. This was the particular case of M/T Woodford, a shipwreck at Mediterranean Sea where SASEMAR had to perform a complex operation to remove the oil from her tanks. The presentation is about the techniques and equipment used in this successful operation as well as how the decision was made to carry it out.
09:45-10:30 Plenary session: Nikolai Maximenko (Hawaii University)Circulation of marine debris from the 2011 tsunami in Japan studied with a synthesis of numerical models and observational reports
March 11, 2011 tsunami devastated the east coast of Japan and produced millions of tons of marine debris that drifted across the North Pacific. The extraordinary amount and unusual composition of tsunami debris allowed to trace its ocean drift and arrivals on different shores and helped to better understand the pathways of general general marine debris. We synthesized this dataset with a suite of ocean models to produce most complete picture of the debris dynamics, pathways, and fate. Observations allowed to optimize such model parameters as windage and models helped to convert sparse observational reports into the the estimates of the total budgets. For example, the study suggests that the original number of boats lost to the tsunami was about 1,000, with 100 or more boats still floating in the ocean.Tsunami debris increased risks to navigation as well as had impacts on shoreline activities in some areas. In addition, it transported Japanese species from Japan to North America and Hawaii and posed risks of their invasive establishment. To characterize these impacts, new methods have been developed that were later utilized in the analysis or the data from such accidents as the disappearance of the Malaysian Airlines Flight MH370.
This study reveals gaps in the marine observing system and calls for enhancement of all its components.
10:30-11:00 Joint tea/coffee break
11:00-11:20 Sarah-Jeanne Royer (University of Hawaii at Manoa). Plastic marine pollution as a physical support to spread Ostreopsis blooms
Over the past 50 years, polymer manufacturing has been increasing at a very fast pace, from 15 million tons in 1964 to 311 million tons in 2014 and is expected to double again over the next 20 years, as development of new polymer composites increases and as plastics come to serve increasingly many applications. The amount of plastic debris that is being disposed of in the ocean is now estimated to a minimum of 4.8 to 12.7 million metric tons entering the ocean per year. The vast effects of these plastic pieces on the marine environment are deleterious; they include entanglement and ingestion by wildlife, the modification of habitats and the transport of alien species, ultimately toxic and harmful ones, given that marine debris have no boundaries and can travel across oceans during several decades.
The toxic microalga Ostreopsis is largely distributed from tropical to temperate marine areas worldwide, and it has been blooming recurrently forming mats that recovers the benthos of certain Mediterranean beaches over the last 20 years. Some Ostreopsis outbreaks, associated with irritative symptoms in humans and massive macrofauna mortalities, have stimulated studies to assess the role of biotic and abiotic factors on its dynamics and biogeographical distribution. Previous studies suggested the potential effect of plastic on the dispersion of this and other harmful species. Ostreopsis produces sticky mucus to attach to different surfaces such as macroalgae, rock, sand and also plastic, through unknown chemical interactions. Thus, it is likely that some plastic substrates will act as better physical support than others and help to spread further. As of today, no study has looked at the susceptibility of the types of plastic marine debris as a physical support by the harmful alga Ostreopsis. Here, we propose to look at the types of plastic in which Ostreopsis is found in the semi-enclosed Mediterranean Sea, one of the most affected oceanic regions by plastic pollution.
11:20-11:40 Montserrat Compa Ferrer (Instituto Español de Oceanografia). Long term coastal marine litter in the Balearic Sea
Marine debris is a growing global issue especially is recent years affecting every corner of our oceans. Our current study analyzes marine debris collected daily during summer months over an 8-year period (2008- 2016) across the entire coastline of the Balearic Islands located in the western Mediterranean Sea. Monitoring surveys are carried out daily varying between the months of May to October. Marine debris is categorized into 6 categories: plastic, wood, organic material, algae, oil, and other. Integrating wave height, wind direction, wind velocity and weather conditions.
11:40-12:00 Cristina Romera-Castillo (ICM-CSIC). Dissolved organic carbon leaching from marine plastics and its effect on heterotrophic microbes
More than 5.25 trillion of plastic pieces have been estimated to be floating at the sea surface. Plastic marine debris on beaches and floating in seawater is exposed to solar UV radiation undergoing weathering degradation. It can develop surface cracks and fragment into progressively smaller particles reaching microscopic sizes (< 5 mm, microplastics). Detrimental effects of plastics on marine organisms at different trophic levels have been widely reported, making plastic pollution a global environmental concern. However, the impacts of plastic debris on the lowest trophic levels, such as the microbial food web, remain enigmatic. Plastic is known to leach organic compounds to the aquatic media. The smaller the piece, the higher its surface to volume ratio and its potential for leaching. However, the contribution of plastic leaching to the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool in the ocean and its impact on the lowest trophic levels, such as the microbial food web, is still unknown. In this work we present experimental evidence that plastics release dissolved organic carbon (DOC) into the ambient seawater stimulating the activity of heterotrophic microbes. It is predicted that plastic waste entering the ocean will increase by 10-fold over the next decade, resulting in an increase in plastic-derived DOC that could have unaccounted consequences for the activity of marine microbes and for the ecosystem.
12:00-13:00 Farewell and concluding remarks